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from: Western Africa | cooking method: boiling-simmering

(also spelled Toh, rhymes with dough) is the basic foundation of meals in the Sahel region of Western Africa, particularly Mali and Burkina Faso and nearby areas. Tô is so common there that one traveler wrote of "les villageois qui mangent tô, tô et tô" ("villagers who eat tô, tô and tô"). Tô is a Fufu-like staple similar to Eastern Africa's Ugali, and is traditionally made with flour ground from native African millet, sorghum, or fonio. It can also be made from finely ground corn (maize) flour or rice flour. It is eaten in the same way: with various sauces and stews made from vegetables or meats. One common accompaniment is an okra sauce made by simmering okra in a bit of water and seasoning with salt and pepper. Tô is always eaten with some sort of soup or stew or sauce.

woman with mortar & pestle, senegal

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In Segu, Maryse Condé mentions that the Bambara people eat degue, which is "millet gruel mixed with curds and honey". In Forbidden Sands, Richard Trench describes "a mixture of water and millet, to which he added a little salt . . . this bitter but refreshing drink, which was called dokhnou".


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Congo Cookbook recipes using Millet

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African Proverbs

Sagore beugua na dougoup, wandey dou baya. (Wolof) : The sparrow loves millet, but he labors not.
  (from: Wit and Wisdom from West Africa, Richard Francis Burton)

Bary dougoup faikey dewanne a kp guenna. (Wolof) : Much millet is good, but it is better to find next year. (ibid)

Odokonno bodam-a, onenam senm. (Oji) : When the bread runs round, it dances it in the pot. N.B. -- "Dokonno" is bread of Indian corn, not baked, for that is forbidden by Fetish law, but boiled, according to the useage prevalent in Akwapim. The proverb probably means, "In a state of excitement the staidest person will behave wildly." (ibid)

Denge tutu lehin ino re gbona bi arifi. (Yoruba) : Though the pap is cold on the back (i.e., surface), yet the inside is very hot. N.B. -- Still waters run deep. (ibid)

Other African proverbs

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